November 6, 2023

Caffeine Consumption and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Levels Among University Students in Medina: A Cross-Sectional Study

N M Makki et al, 2023. Caffeine Consumption and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Levels Among University Students in Medina: A Cross-Sectional Study, Cureus, Volume 15 (10)


Introduction Caffeine is a psychoactive stimulant frequently found in coffee, tea, energy drinks, and some medications. Various mental health challenges, including stress, anxiety, and depression, commonly affect college students. Moreover, an individual’s mental and physical health can be significantly impacted by stress, anxiety, and depression. However, the impact of caffeine on mental health, particularly its association with depressive and anxiety symptoms, remains inconclusive. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the amount of caffeine consumed by university students and its association with depression, anxiety, and stress levels. Material and method This cross-sectional study was performed on Taibah University students in Medina from both health-related and non-health-related colleges. We used a self-administrated questionnaire composed of four sections: the informed consent section; sociodemographic information; the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21), which assessed the depression, anxiety, and stress levels; and a caffeine-measuring questionnaire, which reported daily caffeine intake in milligrams per day. Result This cross-sectional study examined a 520 convenience sample of Taibah University students with an age range from 17 to 29 years. The majority of the participants were single (95.2%), most of them were female (73.8%), and slightly more than half (51.5%) were recruited from health-related colleges. According to the study’s DASS-21 score results, 45.8% of the students had extremely severe stress, 61% had extremely severe anxiety, and 51% had extremely severe depression. The most frequently reported sources of daily caffeine among the participants were Arabic coffee (69.6%), specialty coffee (57.5%), black tea (56.3%), cola (48.7%), and regular coffee (48.5%). The overall daily amount of consumed caffeine ranged from zero to 4276.7 mg/oz. However, no significant association was found between the severity of the DASS-21 score and the daily consumption of caffeine among Taibah University students. Conclusion Our study shows no significant association between the severity of depression, anxiety, and stress and daily caffeine consumption among university students. This proves the opposite of the theory that high levels of caffeine consumption can be correlated to high levels of depression, stress, and anxiety.

Modtag nyhedsbrev

Ja tak, jeg vil gerne modtage nyhedsbrev, når der er noget nyt om kaffe og helbred.