November 20, 2018
H R Lieberman et al, 2018. Daily patterns of caffeine intake and the association of intake with multiple sociodemographic and lifestyle factors in US adults based on the NHANES 2007-2012 surveys, J Acad Nutr Diet, published online.
BACKGROUND: Caffeine increases alertness when consumed in single servings of various products including coffee, tea, soft drinks, and energy drinks. Although not a nutrient, caffeine is consumed by 90% of the adult population in the United States.
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the daily pattern of caffeine intake and its relationship to multiple demographic variables.
METHODS: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012 (adults aged 19+ years; n=16,173) were used to determine the time of day at which caffeine is consumed and demographic factors associated with intake. Regression analyses characterized factors associated with caffeine intake including sex, age, ethnicity, education, smoking status, physical activity, employment status, total work hours, alcohol, and energy intake.
RESULTS: Mean adult per capita caffeine intake was 169±4 mg/d (mean±standard error). Most caffeine (70%) was consumed before noon, often at breakfast, and intake decreased progressively over the day, with little consumed after 9:00 pm. Intake was associated with age, ethnicity, smoking status, total calorie intake, and work hours (P<0.01) but not physical activity, economic status, education level, or employment status. Variables with the largest associations with intake were, respectively, ethnicity and age. Non-Hispanic black individuals consumed the smallest amounts (80±2 mg/d), non-Hispanic white individuals consumed the greatest amounts (194±3 mg/d), and Asian individuals (126±7 mg/d) and Hispanic individuals consumed intermediate amounts (127±3 mg/d). Middle-aged individuals (aged 50 to 54 years) consumed more caffeine (211±6 mg/d) than younger (107±4 mg/d, aged 20 to 24 years) and older individuals (153±4 mg/d, aged 75 to 79 years).
CONCLUSION: Most caffeine is consumed in the morning, when alertness is lowest, and very little in the evening before sleep. Ethnicity and age were the variables most strongly associated with intake; work hours, occupation, energy and alcohol intake, and smoking were also associated with intake. Because caffeine increases alertness, it is not surprising that its pattern of consumption and factors associated with its intake vary from those of most other food constituents.
Ja tak, jeg vil gerne modtage nyhedsbrev, når der er noget nyt om kaffe og helbred.