November 9, 2021
S H Hinkle et al, 2021. Assessment of Caffeine Consumption and Maternal Cardiometabolic Pregnancy Complications, JAMA Network Open, Volume 4 (11).
Importance: Women are recommended to limit caffeine consumption to less than 200 mg per day based on risks to fetal health. Impacts of caffeine on maternal health remain unclear.
Objective: To determine whether caffeinated-beverage intake and plasma caffeine and paraxanthine are associated with cardiometabolic complications in pregnancy (ie, gestational diabetes [GDM], preeclampsia, and gestational hypertension [GH]).
Design, setting, and participants: This cohort study used data from a longitudinal pregnancy cohort study from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Fetal Growth Studies-Singletons (2009-2013). This post hoc secondary analysis of 2802 pregnant women without major chronic conditions enrolled at 12 US clinical sites was completed in 2021. The final sample for caffeinated beverage analyses included 2583 women. After excluding women who did not consent to have their biospecimens stored for future research (n = 54), plasma caffeine analyses included 2529 women. Analyses of caffeine consumption and fasting cardiometabolic profiles included 319 women.
Exposures: Daily total caffeine intake was estimated at 10 to 13 gestational weeks and 16 to 22 gestational weeks based on self-reported past week intake of caffeinated coffee, tea, soda, and energy drinks. Plasma caffeine and paraxanthine were measured in specimens collected at 10 to 13 weeks.
Main outcomes and measures: Clinical diagnoses of GDM, preeclampsia, GH, glucose concentrations from GDM screening, and blood pressure were extracted from medical records.
Results: Participants had a mean (SD) age of 28.1 (5.5) years and 422 participants (16.3%) were Asian/Pacific Islander women, 741 (28.9%) were Hispanic women, 717 (27.8%) were non-Hispanic Black women, and 703 (27.2%) were non-Hispanic White women. At 10 to 13 weeks, 1073 women (41.5%) reported consuming no caffeinated beverages, 1317 (51.0%) reported consuming 1 mg/d to 100 mg/d, 173 (6.7%) reported consuming 101 mg/d to 200 mg/d, and 20 (0.8%) reported consuming more than 200 mg/d. At 16 to 22 weeks, 599 women (23.6%) reported consuming no caffeinated beverages, 1734 (68.3%) reported consuming 1 mg/d to 100 mg/d, 186 (7.3%) reported consuming 101 mg/d to 200 mg/d, and 20 (0.8%) reported consuming more than 200 mg/d caffeinated beverages. Intake at 16 to 22 weeks was associated with lower GDM risk and lower glucose concentrations (1 mg/d to 100 mg/d vs none: relative risk, 0.53 [95% CI, 0.35 to 0.80]; β, -2.7 mg/dL [95% CI, -5.4 mg/dL to 0 mg/dL]) and lower C-reactive protein and C-peptide concentrations and favorable lipid profiles. Total plasma caffeine and paraxanthine at 10 to 13 weeks was inversely associated with glucose (quartile 4 vs quartile 1: β = -3.8 mg/dL [95% CI, -7.0 mg/dL to -0.5 mg/dL]; trend of P = .01). No associations were observed with preeclampsia or GH.
Conclusions and relevance: In this cohort study, second trimester caffeinated beverage intake within current recommendations was associated with lower GDM risk, but not preeclampsia or GH. These findings may be reassuring for women with moderate caffeine intake.
Ja tak, jeg vil gerne modtage nyhedsbrev, når der er noget nyt om kaffe og helbred.