December 11, 2019

Gastrointestinal peptides and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

G Tarantino & C Balsano, 2019. Gastrointestinal peptides and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Current Opinions in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity, published online.


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, authors have selected from literature the most recent and suggestive studies on therapy of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The selected interventions regulate the action of gastrointestinal peptides, such as gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), nesfatin, peptide YY, cholecystokinin, and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). These hormones have been found frequently modified in obesity and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus, morbidities mostly associated with NAFLD. This disease has a very high prevalence worldwide and could evolve in a more severe form, that is, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, characterized by inflammation and fibrosis. The findings shown by this article describe the metabolic effects of new drugs, mainly but not only, as well of some old substances.

RECENT FINDINGS: Recent approaches, in animal models or in humans, use synthetic GLP-1 receptor agonists, a centrally administered antibody neutralizing GIP receptor, curcumin, compound being active on nesfatin, resveratrol (antiinflammatory agent), and Ginseg, both of them acting on nesfatin, a cholecystokinin receptor analogue, and finally coffee functioning on YY peptide.

SUMMARY: The implications of the presented findings, if they are confirmed in larger clinical trials, likely open the door to future application in clinical practice. In fact, nowadays, patients have only diet and article (incl abstract and keywords) exercise as well accepted recommendations. Thus, there are unmet needs to find substances that could really improve the progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis toward liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

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