January 12, 2016
J L Treur et al, 2016, Associations between smoking and caffeine consumption in two European cohorts, Addiction, published online ahead of print.
AIMS: To estimate associations between smoking initiation, smoking persistence and smoking heaviness and caffeine consumption, in two population-based samples from the Netherlands and the United Kingdom.
DESIGN: Observational study employing data on self-reported smoking behaviour and caffeine consumption.
SETTING: Adults from the general population in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom.
PARTICIPANTS: Participants from the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR: N = 21,939, mean age 40.8 [SD = 16.9], 62.6% female) and the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC: N = 9,086, mean age 33.2 [SD = 4.7], 100% female).
MEASUREMENTS: Smoking initiation (ever versus never smoking), smoking persistence (current versus former smoking), smoking heaviness (number of cigarettes smoked) and caffeine consumption in mg per day through coffee, tea, cola and energy drinks.
FINDINGS: After correction for age, gender (NTR), education and social class (ALSPAC), smoking initiation was associated with consuming on average 52.8 (95%CI 45.6 to 60.0; NTR) and 59.5 (51.8 to 67.2; ALSPAC) mg more caffeine per day. Smoking persistence was also associated with consuming more caffeine (+57.9 [45.2 to 70.5]) and +83.2 [70.2 to 96.3] mg, respectively). Each additional cigarette smoked per day was associated with 3.8 (2.0 to 5.6; NTR) and 8.6 (7.0 to 10.1; ALSPAC) mg higher daily caffeine consumption in current smokers. Smoking was positively associated with coffee consumption and less strongly with cola and energy drinks. For tea, associations were positive in ALSPAC and negative in NTR.
CONCLUSIONS: There appears to be a positive association between smoking and caffeine consumption in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom
Ja tak, jeg vil gerne modtage nyhedsbrev, når der er noget nyt om kaffe og helbred.