January 30, 2023

CYP1A2 Genetic Variation, Coffee Intake, and Kidney Dysfunction

S Mahdavi et al, 2023. CYP1A2 Genetic Variation, Coffee Intake, and Kidney Dysfunction, JAMA Network Open, Volume 6(1).


Importance: Caffeine is detoxified by cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), and genetic variation in CYP1A2 impacts the rate of caffeine clearance. Factors that may modify the association between coffee intake and kidney disease remain unclear.

Objective: To assess whether CYP1A2 genotype modifies the association between coffee intake and kidney dysfunction.

Design, setting, and participants: The Hypertension and Ambulatory Recording Venetia Study (HARVEST) was a prospective cohort study of individuals with stage 1 hypertension in Italy; HARVEST began on April 1, 1990, and follow-up is ongoing. The current study used data from April 1, 1990, to June 30, 2006, with follow-up of approximately 10 years. Blood pressure and biochemical data were collected monthly during the first 3 months, then every 6 months thereafter. Data were analyzed from January 2019 to March 2019. Participants were screened and recruited from general practice clinics. The present study included 1180 untreated participants aged 18 to 45 years with stage 1 hypertension; those with nephropathy, diabetes, urinary tract infection, and cardiovascular disease were excluded.

Exposures: Coffee intake and CYP1A2 genotype rs762551 were exposures analyzed over a median follow-up of 7.5 (IQR, 3.1-10.9) years.

Main outcomes and measures: Albuminuria (defined as an albumin level of ≥30 mg/24 h) and hyperfiltration (defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate of ≥150 mL/min/1.73 m2) were the primary outcomes as indicators of kidney dysfunction.

Results: Among 1180 participants, genotyping, lifestyle questionnaires, and urine analysis data were obtained from 604 individuals (438 [72.5%] male) with a mean (SD) age of 33.3 (8.5) years and a mean (SD) body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) of 25.4 (3.4). A total of 158 participants (26.2%) consumed less than 1 cup of coffee per day, 379 (62.7%) consumed 1 to 3 cups per day, and 67 (11.1%) consumed more than 3 cups per day. Genotype frequencies for rs762551 (260 participants [43.1%] with genotype AA, 247 participants [40.8%] with genotype AC, and 97 participants [16.1%] with genotype CC) did not differ between coffee intake categories. The level of risk of developing albuminuria, hyperfiltration, and hypertension, assessed by Cox regression and survival analyses, was not associated with coffee intake in the entire group or among fast metabolizers. The risks of albuminuria (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.74; 95% CI, 1.63-4.62; P < .001), hyperfiltration (aHR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.17-3.80; P = .01), and hypertension (aHR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.51-5.23; P = .001) increased significantly among slow metabolizers who consumed more than 3 cups per day.

Conclusions and relevance: In this study, the risks of albuminuria, hyperfiltration, and hypertension increased with heavy coffee intake only among those with the AC and CC genotypes of CYP1A2 at rs762551 associated with slow caffeine metabolism, suggesting that caffeine may play a role in the development of kidney disease in susceptible individuals.

Modtag nyhedsbrev

Ja tak, jeg vil gerne modtage nyhedsbrev, når der er noget nyt om kaffe og helbred.