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February 29, 2024

Maternal caffeine, coffee and cola drink intake and the risk of gestational diabetes – Kuopio Birth Cohort

A Kukkonen et al, 2024. Maternal caffeine, coffee and cola drink intake and the risk of gestational diabetes – Kuopio Birth Cohort, Primary Care Diabetes

ABSTRACT:

Aims: Coffee intake is associated with a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes among non-pregnant people. We aimed to investigate the association between caffeine, coffee and cola drink intake in early pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes (GDM).

Methods: Kuopio Birth Cohort (KuBiCo) is a prospective cohort study including pregnant women who were followed at the prenatal clinics in outpatient healthcare centers and gave birth in Kuopio University Hospital, Finland (n=2214). Maternal diet during the first trimester of pregnancy was assessed using a 160-item food frequency questionnaire. GDM was diagnosed by oral glucose tolerance test according to the Finnish national guidelines mainly between 24 and 28 gestational weeks.

Results: Women with moderate coffee intake in the first trimester were less likely diagnosed with GDM than women without coffee intake in an age-adjusted model (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.76–0.99; p = 0.03), but the association was attenuated in multi-adjusted models (p = 0.11). No association was found between caffeine intake and GDM. One third (32.4%) of pregnant women consumed caffeine over the recommendation (> 200 mg/d). Women who consumed cola drinks more than the median (33.3 mL/d) had an increased risk of GDM (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.02–1.63, p = 0.037) in multi-adjusted model compared to those who consumed less.

Conclusions: Caffeine intake during the first trimester of pregnancy was not associated with the risk of GDM but a minor non-significant decrease was seen with moderate coffee intake. Although the average consumption of cola drinks was low in the KuBiCo cohort, higher consumption was associated with an increased risk of GDM. Further studies are needed to evaluate the safe amount of coffee during pregnancy, since the recommended caffeine intake was exceeded in almost half of the coffee drinkers.

Modtag nyhedsbrev

Ja tak, jeg vil gerne modtage nyhedsbrev, når der er noget nyt om kaffe og helbred.