May 13, 2019

Tea, coffee, caffeine intake and the risk of cardio-metabolic outcomes: findings from a population with low coffee and high tea consumption

Z Gaeini et al, 2019, Tea, coffee, caffeine intake and the risk of cardio-metabolic outcomes: findings from a population with low coffee and high tea consumption, Nutrition and Metabolism, published online.


BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the potential effects of long-term intake of caffeine and habitual consumption of coffee and tea on the occurrence of cardio-renal events among an Iranian population with low coffee and high tea consumption.

METHODS: Adult participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006-2008 to 2012-2014) who met the study inclusion criteria, were recruited. Habitual dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Demographics, anthropometrics, blood pressure, and biochemical variables were evaluated at baseline and during follow-up examinations. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard and logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders were used to estimate the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension (HTN) and chronic kidney disease (CKD).

RESULTS: During median 6 years of follow-up, the incidence rate of CVD outcomes, HTN, and CKD were 3.3%, 15.5%, and 17.9%, respectively. The risk of CVD was increased more than two-fold in the highest tertile of tea consumption (HR = 2.44, 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.40-4.27; P for trend = 0.001), and caffeine intakes (HR = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.23-4.01; P for trend = 0.005). A 42% lower incidence of CVD was observed in coffee drinkers, compared to non-drinkers (HR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.36-0.93; P for trend = 0.023). No significant association was observed between tea, coffee or caffeine intakes and the risk of HTN or CKD.

CONCLUSIONS: Findings of our study support previous data regarding the protective effects of coffee on CVD. Contrary to the previous studies, we found that higher intakes of tea and caffeine, mainly originated from tea in our population, may increase risk of CVD events. It may be related to the type of tea and its preparation methods, additives or artificial colors in tea consumed in Iran, and sweets or sugar that mostly consumed accompanied by tea. Also, genetic variants of the liver enzymes may modify the association of dietary caffeine sources and incidence of CVD. Further prospective studies with incorporation of different population with different dietary habits and genetic backgrounds are needed to clarify the contradictions.

Modtag nyhedsbrev

Ja tak, jeg vil gerne modtage nyhedsbrev, når der er noget nyt om kaffe og helbred.