April 11, 2016

The 2015 Dutch food-based dietary guidelines

D Kromhout et al, 2016, The 2015 Dutch food-based dietary guidelines, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, published online ahead of print.


The objective of this study was to derive food-based dietary guidelines for the Dutch population. The dietary guidelines are based on 29 systematic reviews of English language meta-analyses in PubMed summarizing randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies on nutrients, foods and food patterns and the risk of 10 major chronic diseases: coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure, diabetes, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, dementia and depression. The committee also selected three causal risk factors for cardiovascular diseases or diabetes: systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and body weight. Findings were categorized as strong or weak evidence, inconsistent effects, too little evidence or effect unlikely for experimental and observational data separately. Next, the committee selected only findings with a strong level of evidence for deriving the guidelines. Convincing evidence was based on strong evidence from the experimental data either or not in combination with strong evidence from prospective cohort studies. Plausible evidence was based on strong evidence from prospective cohort studies only. A general guideline to eat a more plant food-based dietary pattern and limit consumption of animal-based food and 15 specific guidelines have been formulated. There are 10 new guidelines on legumes, nuts, meat, dairy produce, cereal products, fats and oils, tea, coffee and sugar-containing beverages. Three guidelines on vegetables, fruits, fish and alcoholic beverages have been sharpened, and the 2006 guideline on salt stayed the same. A separate guideline has been formulated on nutrient supplements. Completely food-based dietary guidelines can be derived in a systematic and transparent way.

The section on coffee states:

Coffee. For coffee, it is relevant to know in which way it is prepared—with a filter or not—because the filter can take away the cholesterol-elevating compounds kahweol and cafestol.110 Coffee pads, dissolved coffee and machine coffee based on liquid coffee concentrate are examples of filtered coffee. Examples of unfiltered coffee are boiled coffee, cafetiere coffee, Greek coffee and Turkish coffee. Espresso and some types of machine coffee can be filtered or unfiltered depending on the machine, type and amount of coffee and the type of filter used.111 The committee concludes that in RCTs unfiltered coffee convincingly increases LDL-cholesterol 112 (Supplementary Table 10 in Supplementary Appendix 2), a causal risk factor of CHD. Coffee was associated with a lower risk of CHD, stroke and diabetes in recently carried out cohort studies.113 These studies concern mostly filtered coffee.

Guideline. Replace unfiltered coffee by filtered coffee.

Modtag nyhedsbrev

Ja tak, jeg vil gerne modtage nyhedsbrev, når der er noget nyt om kaffe og helbred.