October 11, 2021
K Maasen et al, 2021. Higher habitual intake of dietary dicarbonyls is associated with higher corresponding plasma dicarbonyl concentrations and skin autofluorescence: The Maastricht Study, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, published online.
Background: Dicarbonyls are highly reactive compounds and major precursors of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). Both dicarbonyls and AGEs are associated with development of age-related diseases. Dicarbonyls are formed endogenously, but also during food processing. To what extent dicarbonyls from the diet contribute to circulating dicarbonyls and AGEs in tissues is unknown.
Objective: To examine cross-sectional associations of dietary dicarbonyl intake with plasma dicarbonyl concentrations and skin AGEs.
Design: In 2566 individuals of the population based Maastricht Study (age: 60±8 yrs, 50% males, 26% type 2 diabetes), we estimated habitual intake of the dicarbonyls methylglyoxal (MGO), glyoxal (GO), and 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG), by combining Food Frequency Questionnaires with our dietary dicarbonyl database of MGO, GO, and 3-DG concentrations in >200 commonly-consumed food products. Fasting plasma concentrations of MGO, GO, and 3-DG were measured by UPLC-MS/MS. Skin AGEs were measured as skin autofluorescence (SAF), using the AGE-Reader. Associations of dietary dicarbonyl intake with their respective plasma concentrations and SAF (all standardized) were examined using linear regression models, adjusted for age, sex, potential confounders related to cardio-metabolic risk factors and lifestyle.
Results: Median intake of MGO, GO, and 3-DG was 3.6, 3.5, and 17 mg/day, respectively. Coffee was the main dietary source of MGO, whereas this was bread for GO and 3-DG. In the fully adjusted models, dietary MGO was associated with plasma MGO (β = 0.08, 95%CI [0.02,0.13]) and SAF (β = 0.12 [0.07,0.17]). Dietary GO was associated with plasma GO (β = 0.10 [0.04,0.16]) but not with SAF. 3-DG was not significantly associated with either plasma 3-DG or SAF.
Conclusions: Higher habitual intake of dietary MGO and GO, but not 3-DG, was associated with higher corresponding plasma concentrations. Higher intake of MGO was also associated with higher SAF. These results suggest dietary absorption of MGO and GO. Biological implications of dietary absorption of MGO and GO need to be determined.
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