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March 4, 2024

Long-Term Consumption of 6 Different Beverages and Cardiovascular Disease-Related Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

B Bhandari et al, 2024. Long-Term Consumption of 6 Different Beverages and Cardiovascular Disease-Related Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies, Curr Dev Nutr

ABSTRACT:

The relationship between beverage consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease has been extensively examined in cross-sectional studies. However, limited studies have investigated beverage consumption as a longer-term habitual behavior, which is important owing to potential cumulative harmful or beneficial cardiovascular effects. We examined the association between the long-term consumption of 6 types of beverages (sugar-sweetened or artificially sweetened beverages, tea, coffee, fruit juice, energy drinks, and alcohol) and cardiovascular mortality, by considering sex differences. We conducted a systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Scopus databases from 2010 to December 2023. Of 8049 studies identified, 20 studies were included for meta-analysis. Summary hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated with the use of a random-effects model. We found that long-term coffee consumption was related to reduced cardiovascular disease-related mortality in males (pooled HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.87; P = 0.005) but not in females (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.60, 1.02; P = 0.07). Long-term higher intake of tea was associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease-related mortality in all adults (pooled HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.72, 0.92; P ≤ 0.001). Higher alcohol intake was linked to higher stroke in both males (pooled HR: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.94; P = 0.02) and females (pooled HR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.34, 3.81; P = 0.002). Higher sugar-sweetened beverage intake was in relation to higher cardiovascular disease-related mortality (pooled HR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.16, 1.46; P ≤ 0.0001). We concluded that long-term habitual coffee consumption is beneficial for males, and tea consumption is beneficial for all adults. Long-term high alcohol and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption increased risk of cardiovascular disease-related mortality for both males and females. However, we were unable to draw conclusions on the potential benefit or harm of the long-term consumption of fruit juice and energy drinks on cardiovascular disease-related mortality owing to the limited number of studies available.

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