Mental præstationsevne:

1 EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA): “Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to caffeine and increased fat oxidation leading to a reduction in body fat mass (ID 735, 1484), increased energy expenditure leading to a reduction in body weight (ID 1487), increased alertness (ID 736, 1101, 1187, 1485, 1491, 2063, 2103) and increased attention (ID 736, 1485, 1491, 2375) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/20061.” EFSA Journal, 2011; 9 (4): 2054.

2 Philip P. et al.: “The effects of coffee and napping on nighttime highway driving: a randomized trial.” Ann Intern Med, 2006; 144: 785-91.

3 Horne J. et al.: “Vehicle accidents related to sleep: a review.” Occup Environ Med, 1999; 56: 289-94.

4 Smith A.P.: “Caffeine at work.” Hum Psychopharmacol, 2005; 20: 441-5.

5 Smith A.P. et al.: “Caffeine and the common cold.” J Psychopharmacol, 1997; 11: 319-24.

6 Smith A.P. et al.: “Effects of caffeine given before and after lunch on sustained attention. Neuropsychobiology, 1990-1991; 23: 160-3.

7 Ker K et al.: “Caffeine for the prevention of injuries and errors in shift workers.” Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2010; 12 (5): CD008508.

8 Schmitt J.A.J. et al.: “General methodological considerations for the assessment of nutritional influences on human cognitive functions.” European Journal of Nutrition, 2005; 44: 459-464.


9 Roehrs T. et al.: “Caffeine: sleep and daytime sleepiness.” Sleep Med Rev, 2008; 12: 153-62.

10 Drapeau C. et al.: “Challenging sleep in aging: the effects of 200 mg of caffeine during the evening in young and middle-aged moderate caffeine consumers.” J Sleep Res, 2006; 15: 133-41.

 11 Carrier J. et al.: “Effects of caffeine on daytime recovery sleep: A double challenge to the sleep-wake cycle in aging.” Sleep Med, 2009; 10: 1016-24.

12 Birkett D.J. et al.: “Caffeine renal clearance and urine caffeine concentrations during steady state dosing. Implications for monitoring caffeine intake during sports events.” Br J Clin Pharmacol, 1991; 31: 405-8.

13 Retey J.V. et al.: “A genetic variation in the adenosine A2A receptor gene (ADORA2A) contributes to individual sensitivity to caffeine effects on sleep.” Clin Pharmacol Ther, 2007; 81: 692-8.

14 Cornelis M.C. et al.: “Genetic polymorphism of the adenosine A2A receptor is associated with habitual caffeine consumption.” Am J Clin Nutr, 2007; 86: 240-4.

15 Sin C.W.M. et al.: “Systematic review on the effectiveness of caffeine abstinence on the quality of sleep.” J Clin Nursing, 2008; 18: 13-21.


16 World Health Organisation: “Mental and behavioural disorders.” International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10. udgave, 2010.

17 Nehlig A. et al.: “Dose-response study of caffeine effects on cerebral functional activity with a specific focus on dependence.” Brain Res, 2000; 858: 71-77.

18 American Psychiatric Association: “Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed., text rev)”, 2013.

19 Nehlig A.: “Are we dependent on coffee and caffeine: an update.” Coffee, Tea, Chocolate and the Brain. CRC Press, 2004: 133-146.

Neurodegenerative sygdomme:

20 Santos C. et al.: “Caffeine intake and dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis.” J Alzheimers Dis, 2010; 20: S187-204.

21 Johnson-Kozlow M. et al.: “Coffee consumption and cognitive function among older adults.” Am J Epidemiol, 2002; 156: 842-850.

22 Ritchie K. et al.: “The neuroprotective effects of caffeine: a prospective population study (the Three City Study).” Neurology, 2007; 69: 536-545.

23 Arab L. et al.: “Gender Differences in Tea, Coffee, and Cognitive Decline in the Elderly: The Cardiovascular Health Study.” J Alzheimers Dis. 2011; 27(3): 553-66.

24 Hernan M.A. et al.: “A meta-analysis of coffee drinking, cigarette smoking, and the risk of Parkinson’s disease.” Ann Neurol, 2002; 52: 276-84.

25 Costa J. et al.: “Caffeine exposure and the risk of Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.” J Alzheimers Dis, 2010; 20: S221-38.

26 Ascherio A. et al.: “Prospective study of caffeine consumption and risk of Parkinson’s disease in men and women.” Ann Neurol, 2001; 50: 56-63.

27 Morelli M. et al.: “Adenosine A2A receptors and Parkinson’s disease.” Handb Exp Pharmacol, 2009; 193: 589-615.

28 Iida M. et al.: “Dopamine D2 receptor-mediated antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of ropinirole, a dopamine agonist.” Brain Res, 1999; 838: 51-9.

Sportslige præstationer:

29 EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA): “Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to caffeine and increase in physical performance during short-term high-intensity exercise (ID 737, 1486, 1489), increase in endurance performance (ID 737, 1486), increase in endurance capacity (ID 1488) and reduction in the rated perceived exertion/effort during exercise (ID 1488, 1490) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006.” EFSA Journal, 2011; 9 (4): 2053.

30 Ganio M. S. et al.: “Effect of Caffeine on Sport-Specific Endurance Performance: A Systematic Review.” J Strength and Conditioning Research, 2009; 23 (1): 315-24.

31 Astorino T.A. et al.: “Efficacy of Acute Caffeine Ingestion for short-term high-intensity exercise performance: A Systematic Review.” J Strength and Conditioning Research, 2009; 24 (1): 257-265.


32 Popkin B.M. et al.: “A new proposed guidance system for beverage consumption in the United States.” Am. J. Clin. Nutr, 2006; 83: 529-542.

33 Silva A.M. et al.: “Total body water and its compartments are not affected by ingesting a moderate dose of caffeine in healthy young adult males.” Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metab, 2013; 38: 6.

34 Kolasa K.M. et al.: ” Hydration and health promotion.” Nutr Today, 2009; 44: 190-203.

35 Ganio M.S. et al.: “Evidence-based approach to lingering hydration questions.” Clin Sports Med, 2007; 26, 12-16.

36 Goldstein E.R. et al.: “Caffeine enhances upper body strength in resistance trained athletes.” J. Int Soc Sports Nut, 2010; 7: 5.

Type 2-diabetes:

37 Huxley R. et al.: “Coffee, Decaffeinated Coffee, and Tea Consumption in Relation to Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.” Archives of Internal Medicine, 2009; 169: 2053-2063.

38 Van Dam R.M. et al.: “Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.” Lancet, 2002; 360: 1477-1478.

39 Zhang Y. et al.: “Coffee consumption and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in men and women with normal glucose tolerance: The Strong Heart Study.” Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis, 2011; 21: 418-423.

40 van Dieren S. et al.: “Coffee and tea consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes.” Diabetologia, 2009; 52: 2561-9.

41 Sartorelli D.S. et al.: “Differential effects of coffee on the risk of type 2 diabetes according to meal consumption in a French cohort of women: the E3N/EPIC cohort study.” Am J Clin Nutr, 2010; 91: 1002-12.

42 Oba S. et al.: “Consumption of coffee, green tea, oolong tea, black tea, chocolate snacks and the caffeine content in relation to risk of diabetes in Japanese men and women.” Br J Nutr, 2010; 103: 453-9.

43 Boggs D.A. et al.: “Coffee, tea, and alcohol intake in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes in African American women.” Am J Clin Nutr, 2010; 92: 960-6.

44 Hjellvik V. et al.: “Boiled Coffee Intake and Subsequent Risk for Type 2 Diabetes.” Epidemiology, 2011; 22(3): 418-21.

38 Van Dieren S. et al.: “Coffee and tea consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes.” Diabetologia. 2009; 52: 2561-2569.

Kardiovaskulært helbred:

45 Wu J. et al.: “Coffee consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of 21 prospective cohort studies.” Int J Cardiol, 2009; 137: 216-225.

46 Lopez-Garcia E. et al.: “Coffee consumption and risk of stroke in women.” Circulation, 2009; 119: 1116-1123.

47 Gardener H. et al.: “Coffee and Tea Consumption Are Inversely Associated with Mortality in a Multi-ethnic Urban Population.” The Journal of Nutrition, 2013; 143 (8): 1299-308.

48 Geleijnse J.M.: “Habitual coffee consumption and blood pressure: An epidemiological perspective.” Vasc Health Risk Man, 2008; 4 (5): 963-970.

49 Urgert R. & Katan M. B.: “The cholesterol-raising factor from coffee beans.” J R Med, 1996; 89 (11): 618-623.

50 Jee S.H. et al.: “Coffee consumption and serum lipids: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials.” Am J Epidemiol, 2001; 153: 353-362.


51 International Agency for Research on Cancer: “Coffee, Tea, Mate, Methylxanthines and Methylglyoxal.” IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 1991; 51: 41 -174.

52 Yu X. et al.: “Coffee consumption and risk of cancers: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.” BMC Cancer, 2011; 11: 96.

53 Nkondjock A.: “Coffee consumption and the risk of cancer: an overview.” Cancer Letters, 2009; 277: 121-5.

54 Bhoo Pathy N. et al.: “Coffee and tea intake and risk of breast cancer.” Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2010; 121: 461-7.

55 Nkondjock A. et al.: “Coffee consumption and breast cancer risk among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.” Int J Cancer, 2006; 118: 103-7.

56 Kotsopoulos J. et al.: “The CYP1A2 genotype modifies the association between coffee consumption and breast cancer risk among BRCA1 mutation carriers.” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 2007; 16: 912-6.

57 Tavani A. et al.: “Coffee, decaffeinated coffee, tea and cancer of the colon and rectum: a review of epidemiological studies 1990-2003.” Cancer Causes Control, 2004; 15: 743-57.

58 Giovannucci E.: “Meta-analysis of coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer.” Am J Epidemiol, 1998; 147: 1043-52.

59 Tang N. et al.: “Coffee consumption and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis.” Am J Obstet Gynecol, 2009; 200: 290.e1-9.

60 Lee J.E. et al.: “Intakes of coffee, tea, milk, soda and juice and renal cell cancer in a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies.” Int J. Cancer, 2007; 121: 2246-53.

61 Bravi F. et al.: “Coffee drinking and hepatocellular carcinoma risk: a meta-analysis.” Hepatology, 2007; 46: 430-435.

62 Larsson S.C. et al.: “Coffee consumption and liver cancer: a meta-analysis.” Gastroenterology, 2007; 132: 1740-1745.

63 Botelho F. et al. “Coffee and gastric cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis.” Cad Saude Publica, 2006; 22: 889-900.

64 Nilsson L.M. et al.: “Consumption of filtered and boiled coffee and the risk of incident cancer: a prospective cohort study.” Cancer Causes Control, 2010; 21: 1533-44.

65 Galeone C. et al.: “Coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of case–control studies.” Cancer Causes Control, 2010; 21: 1949-59.

66 Arab L.: “Epidemiologic evidence on coffee and cancer.” Nutr Cancer, 2010; 62: 271-83.

67 Tang N. et al.: “Coffee consumption and risk of lung cancer: a meta-analysis.” Lung Cancer, 2010; 67: 17-22.


68 Haug T.T. et al.: What Are the Real Problems for Patients with Functional Dyspepsia?” Scan J Gastroenterol, 1995; 30 (2): 97-100.

69 Moayyedi P. et al.: “The Proportion of Upper Gastrointestinal Symptoms in the community Associated With Helicobacter pylori, Lifestyle Factors, and Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs.” Am J Gastroenterol, 2000; 95 (6): 1448-1455.

70 Nandurkar S. et al.: “Dyspepsia in the community is linked to smoking and aspirin use but not to Helicobacter pylori infection.” Arch Intern Med, 1998; 158 (13): 1427-1433.

71 Shimamoto T. et al.: “No association of coffee consumption with gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, reflux esophagitis, and non-erosive reflux disease: a cross-sectional study of 8,013 healthy subjects in Japan.” PLoS One, 2013; 12: 8 (6).

72 Kim J. et al.: “Association between coffee intake and gastroesophageal reflux disease: a meta-analysis.” Diseases of the Esophagus, 2013, offentliggjort online før trykning.


73 Misciagna G. et al.: “Epidemiology of cholelithiasis in Southern Italy. Part II: risk factors.” Eur J Gastroentero Hepatol, 1996; 8: 585-593.

74 Leitzmann M.F. et al.: “A prospective study of coffee consumption and risk of symptomatic gallstone disease in men.” JAMA, 1999; 281: 2106-2112.

75 Leitzmann M.F. et al.: “Coffee intake is associated with lower risk of symptomatic gallstone disease in women.” Gastroenterol, 2002; 123, 1823-1830.

76 Ruhl C.E. et al.: “Association of coffee consumption with gallbladder disease.” Am J Epidemiol, 2000; 152: 1034-8.

77 La Vecchia C. et al.: “Risk factors for gallstone disease requiring surgery.” Intern J Epidemiol, 1991; 20: 209-215.


78 Gressner O.A.: “About coffee, cappuccino and connective tissue growth factor – or how to protect your liver!?” Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 2009; 28 (1): 1-10.

79 Modi A.A. et al.: “Increased caffeine consumption is associated with reduced hepatic ibrosis.” Hepatology, 2010; 51: 201-209.

80 Stroffolini T. et al.: “Interaction of alcohol intake and cofactors on the risk of cirrhosis.” Liver International, 2010; 30 (6): 867-870.

81 Catalano D. et al.: “Protective role of coffee on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).” Digestive Disease and Sciences, 2010; 55 (11): 3200-3206.

82 Birerdinc A. et al.: “Caffeine is protective in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.” Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 2012; 35 (1): 76-82.

83 Molloy J.W. et al.: “Association of coffee and caffeine consumption with fatty liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and degree of hepatic fibrosis.” Hepatology, 2012; 55 (2): 429-36.

84 Gutierrez-Grobe Y. et al.: “High coffee intake is associated with lower grade non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: the role of peripheral antioxidant activity.” Annals of Hepatology, 2012; 11 (3): 350-355.

85 Freedman N.D. et al.: “Coffee intake is associated with lower rates of liver disease progression in chronic Hepatits-C.” Hepatology, 2009; 50: 1360-1369.

86 Costentin C.E. et al.: “Association of caffeine intake and histological features of chronic hepatitis C.” Journal of Hepatology, 2011; 54: 1123-1129.


87 Committee on Obstetric Practice: “Moderate caffeine consumption during pregnancy.” Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2010; 116: 467-8.

88 Jensen T.K. et al.: “Caffeine intake and semen quality in a population of 2,554 young Danish men.” American Journal of Epidemiology, 2010; 171: 883-91.

89 Lawson C.C. et al.: “Changes in caffeine consumption as a signal of pregnancy.” Reproductive Toxicology, 2004; 18 (5): 625-33.

90 Hatch E.E. et al.: “Caffeinated beverage and soda consumption and time to pregnancy.” Epidemiology, 2012; 23 (3): 393-401.

91 Brent R.L. et al.: “Evaluation of the reproductive and developmental risks of caffeine.” Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology, 2011; 92 (2): 152-187.

92 Peck J.D. et al.: “A review of the epidemiologic evidence concerning the reproductive health effects of caffeine consumption: a 2000-2009 update.” Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2010; 48 (10): 2549-76.

Modtag nyhedsbrev

Ja tak, jeg vil gerne modtage nyhedsbrev, når der er noget nyt om kaffe og helbred.